Laboratory Study on the Physical Properties of Sea Salt Aerosol Particles and Model Systems

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Titel: Laboratory Study on the Physical Properties of Sea Salt Aerosol Particles and Model Systems
Autor(en): Hamza, Mariam Abdou Mahmoud
Erstgutachter: Prof. Dr. Eckart Rühl
Zweitgutachter: Apl. Prof. Dr. Manfred Wöhlecke
Zusammenfassung: Single levitated microdroplets of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and natural seawater are investigated under conditions similar to that in the troposphere by using the electrodynamic balance technique. The thermodynamics and the kinetics of liquid-to-solid phase transitions have been investigated as a function of temperature and humidity. The temperature dependence of the critical partial pressure of water vapor over aqueous supersaturated aerosol droplets allows us to determine negative values for the integral heat of solution of KCl, NaCl and Mediterranean Sea droplets. In addition, the rates of homogeneous nucleation from supersaturated solution droplets are reported, where the data are fitted with three exponential functions to give three values for the nucleation rates. The phase transition processes which occur on different time scales are identified. The investigation of natural sea salt aerosol droplets collected from the Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, North Sea, and Suez Canal show that the phase change (liquid-to-solid) can occur at relative humidities that are greater than 33% RH, where the deliquescence humidity of MgCl2 is known to occur. It is found that there are slight variations (either a decrease or an increase) in water vapor pressure over the supersaturated aerosol droplets due to the change in water salinity, organic components that are present in the water sample, the depth, where the water sample is gathered, and its geographic location. The experimental results show that the presence of the organic substances in the aerosol particles affects the crystallization process depending on the amount and the type of the organic substance. It is observed that adding 1-heptanol to a NaCl droplet increases the crystallization diameter, which is attributed to the formation of a layer of the organic substance on the droplet surface, so that water evaporation cannot efficiently occur.
Schlagworte: Sea salt aerosol; Supersaturated droplet; Homogeneous nucleation; Organic surface film
Erscheinungsdatum: 20-Apr-2004
Publikationstyp: Dissertation oder Habilitation [doctoralThesis]
Enthalten in den Sammlungen:FB04 - E-Dissertationen

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