Functional in vivo characterization of Neprilysin as a central regulator of insulin signaling and muscle contraction in Drosophila melanogaster

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dc.contributor.advisorDr. Heiko Hartenger
dc.creatorSchiemann, Ronja Thea-
dc.description.abstractPeptides play pivotal roles in the regulation of various physiological processes. As neuropeptides or peptide hormones, they can bind to a range of receptors and thereby trigger the activation of different pathways, including insulin signaling. Another central functionality is facilitated by the action of the as regulins summarized transmembrane micropeptides. By binding to the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA), the regulins control Ca2+ homeostasis and muscle contraction. With the ongoing identification of novel modulatory micropeptides encoded by small open reading frames, the urgency to understand peptide-dependent regulatory networks rises. In this regard, especially impact and physiological relevance exerted by the enzymatic inactivation of the mature, biologically active peptides are far from completely understood. Neprilysins are metalloendopeptidases expressed throughout the animal kingdom. Based on their broad substrate specificity, the activity of neprilysins is crucial for the modulation of multiple peptide-dependent processes. This work aimed to identify new peptide substrates of the Drosophila melanogaster Neprilysin 4 (Nep4) and investigate the enzyme's physiological impact on the affected regulatory mechanisms. The first part of the work could identify 16 novel Nep4 peptide substrates that play essential roles in insulin signaling and the regulation of food intake: allatostatin A1-A4, adipokinetic hormone, corazonin, diuretic hormone 31, drosulfakinin 1 and 2, leucokinin, two short neuropeptide F peptides, and tachykinin 1-4. Thereby, aberrant expression of Nep4 leads to severe phenotypes linked to misregulation of insulin signaling, including reduced body size and weight, compromised food intake, and a characteristic shift in metabolomic composition. To further investigate and understand the complex functionality of the newly discovered Nep4 substrates, these peptides were tested for their ability to modulate the Drosophila heartbeat. A combined in vitro/in vivo screen revealed that the tested substrates exert chronotropic as well as inotropic effects, rendering the peptides as essential novel modulators of the heartbeat in Drosophila. The main project of this thesis was based on the initial finding that animals with Nep4 overexpression exhibit severe impairments of body wall muscle and heart functionality. By applying various experiments, including analyses of muscle and heart contraction, measurement of Ca2+ transients, pull-down studies, STED super-resolution microscopy, and mass spectrometry, Neprilysin 4 was identified as a novel modulator of SERCA activity. The molecular underpinning of this regulatory mechanism is the Nep4 mediated cleavage and inactivation of Drosophila SERCA-inhibitory Sarcolamban micropeptides SCLA and SCLB. Strikingly, cleavage experiments using the mammalian neprilysin and apparent colocalization of Neprilysin and SERCA in human heart tissue indicate evolutionary conservation of this mechanism. In summary, this work could identify a range of so far unknown Nep4 substrates and thereby point out the critical roles these class of enzymes plays in insulin signaling as well as the physiology of muscle and heart contraction.eng
dc.rightsAttribution 3.0 Germany*
dc.subjectMuscle contractioneng
dc.subjectHeart physiologyeng
dc.subjectCalcium homeostasiseng
dc.subjectInsulin signalingeng
dc.subjectDrosophila melanogasterger
dc.subject.ddc570 - Biowissenschaften, Biologieger
dc.titleFunctional in vivo characterization of Neprilysin as a central regulator of insulin signaling and muscle contraction in Drosophila melanogastereng
dc.typeDissertation oder Habilitation [doctoralThesis]-
thesis.typeDissertation [thesis.doctoral]-
dc.contributor.refereeProf. Dr. Achim Paululatger
dc.subject.bk42.13 - Molekularbiologieger
dc.subject.bk42.18 - Physiologie der Enzyme, Hormone, Sekreteger
dc.subject.bk42.15 - Zellbiologieger
Enthalten in den Sammlungen:FB05 - E-Dissertationen

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